In the optical communication system, and in many occasions there need to reduce the power of the optical signal, for example, the optical power of the optical receiver is very sensitive to overloading, the input power must be controlled within the input range of the receiver to prevent saturation. Another example, optical amplifier in front of the balance between different channel input power can prevent one or some channels of the input power is too big, cause the optical amplifier gain saturation, etc. The main role of the user in accordance with the requirements of the optical signal is expected to be attenuated, the application area is absorbed or reflected by the system losses and various experiments fall out PHR, evaluation system.
Optical attenuator can be divided into fixed and variable optical attenuator attenuators, fixed attenuators can also be subdivided into a pigtail style fixed attenuators, attenuator converter, conversion formula fixed attenuator, optical attenuator fixed conversion formula, depending on the type of the interface, there may be FC, SC, ST Attenuator, FC-SC, FC-ST, SC-ST Attenuator. Inverter-type fixed attenuator can be divided into SC-FC, ST-FC, SC-ST, FC, ST, SC Attenuator.
With the development of optical communication technology, The performance of optical attenuator are: low insertion loss, high return loss, resolution, linearity and repeatability, the amount of attenuation adjustable range, attenuation of high precision, small volume during the environmental good performance. Among them, resolution linearity depends on the decay resistance of components and adopted reading display mode and mechanical adjustment mechanism to adjust the structure and mechanical methods used also depends on repeatability.
Optical attenuator insertion loss mainly from transmission accuracy and coupling fiber collimator technology insertion loss and attenuation unit, which focuses on technology fiber collimator production, if the fiber and self-focusing lens and two Coupling very good, you can make the spaces between the fiber collimator optical attenuator insertion loss is greatly reduced.
Amount of attenuation and insertion loss of the optical attenuator is an important technical indicator. Indicator optical attenuation amount of the fixed attenuator insertion loss is actually, in addition to the variable attenuation amount of the optical attenuator, there is a separate insertion loss indicator. Quality variable attenuator insertion loss 1.0dB less. The common variable fiber optical attenuator of the indicators can be used less than 0.3 dB.
From the point of view of market demand, while optical attenuator will develope toward miniaturization, serialization, low price direction, on the other hand, because of common type optical attenuator has been quite mature, so optical attenuator research will focus on its high performance aspects in the future. Here, it should be noted that, because of a device are any reflection will cause the frequency drift and line noise sources, which affect the optical communication system, CATV networks, related to the optical communication, and even cause the entire system misuse, destruction of their normal work; while high return loss attenuator attenuator is an important direction of development.
With the continuous development of optical communications, the applications of optical attenuator is also increasing. To ensure error-free high-speed transmission line, the optical power of the respective channel signal reaches a certain value, high-precision optical attenuator return loss is essential. Using attenuated fiber optical attenuator can be a good match with common optical fiber connectors, because Ultra-wideband consistent attenuation can ensure the product is fully compatible with DWDM, CATV and other communication now and future, will be widely used.
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