Basic Knowledge of Fiber Optic Connector

Terminating the end of an optical fiber, the fiber optic connector is utilized to join optical fibers where a connect or disconnect capability is required. A fiber optic connector has three major components: the ferrule, the connector body and the coupling mechanism. Generally made from ceramic, metal or high quality plastic, the ferrule is a thin structure (often cylindrical) that holds the glass fiber. The connector body is a plastic or metal structure that holds the ferrule and attaches to the jacket and strengthens members of the fiber cable itself. And the coupling mechanism is a part of the connector body that holds the connector in place when it gets attached to another device.

Since the fiber cable transmits pulses of light instead of electrical signals, it is important to choose a good fiber optic connector that aligns microscopic glass fibers perfectly in order to allow for communication. Nowadays, there are many different types of fiber optic connectors in the market (as shown in the following figure). Different kinds of optical fiber cables may need different connectors. Seen from the types of optical fiber, the fiber optic connectors may be loosely classified into standard fiber optic connectors, small form factor fiber optic connectors and ribbon fiber connectors. These family types of fiber connectors sometimes may overlap with each other.

fiber optic connector

  • Standard Fiber Optic Connectors

Generally having a ferrule of 2.5 mm, standard fiber optic connectors are connectors commonly used in the fiber network. They can be both simplex and duplex and available in single mode and multi-mode fibers. ST, FC, SC, FDDI and ESCON are all standard fiber connectors. But they also differ from each other. ST connector is the most popular connector for multi-mode fiber optic LAN applications. FC connector is specifically designed for telecommunication applications and provides non-optical disconnect performance. SC connector is widely used in single mode applications for its excellent performance. FDDI connector, which is a duplex multi-mode connector, utilizes two 2.5mm ferrules and is designed to used in FDDI network. ESCON connectors are similar to FDDI connectors, but contain a retractable shroud instead of a fixed shroud.

  • Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Connectors

To meet the demand for devices that can fit into tight spaces and allow denser packing of connections, a number of small form factor fiber optic connectors have been developed since the 1990s. In this type of small form factor fiber optic connectors, some are miniaturized versions of older connectors, built around a 1.25mm ferrule rather than the 2.5mm ferrule. For example, the LC, MU, E2000 connectors. While the others are based on smaller versions of MT-type ferrule for multi-mode fiber connections, or other brand new designs. For example, the MT-RJ connector, which has a miniature two-fiber ferrule with two guide pins parallel to the fibers on the outside. Its overall size is about the same as a RJ45 connector.

  • Ribbon Fiber Connectors

MTP and MPO are compatible ribbon fiber connectors based on MT ferrules which allow quick and reliable connections for up to 12 fibers. Since the MTP product complies with the MPO standard, the MTP connector is an MPO connector. Along with the MTP patch cables (for example, MTP-MTP fiber trunk cable), MTP connectors can upgrade the 10G network to 40G/100G.

The fiber optic connector is an essential part in fiber optical network. As the popularity of fiber optical network, about 100 fiber optic connectors have been introduced to the market. As the main professional fiber optic products supplier in China, Fiberstore offers various kinds of fiber cable connectors, especially the commonly used FC, LC, SC, ST and MPO connectors.

Using Fiber Terminators to Terminator Unused Fiber Connector Ports

With the rapid deployment of high speed fiber multiplexer, the possibility of having an un-terminated derived channel or branch increases. The single fiber connector mated to an unused adapter or coupling is the source of back-reflection. The fiber optic terminator is usually used to terminate the unused fiber connector ports in fiber optic systems. Such unused ports will create unwanted return loss and degrade the whole network performance. Fiber optic terminators are passive components that can absorb light coming from the unterminated connectors plugs and reduce signal degradation in digital and analog systems.

optical terminators
optical terminators from FiberStore

Fiber optic terminators are designed to reduce back-reflections, which is typically found on laser-activated, connectorized access points such as those found on splitters, DWDM’s or fiber distribution frames. are functional devices using Metal-Ion Doped Fibers. By using these fibers, optical terminators can convert the optical power into heat and the power is attenuated inside the devices. The structures of the plug type optical terminators are simple and the power-proof and performance stability is superior. The fiber optic terminators also maintain the cleanliness of unterminated plugs and protect them from possible physical damage.

The plug type optical terminators are used to terminate dark fiber port on the fiber optic component. Their ceramic ferrule is polished with an angled or non-angled end face to reduce unwanted reflections from open ports. These optical terminator also provide improved personal safety over termination methods.

Specifications

Return Loss: UPC >55 dB, APC >65 dB
Back Reflection: APC < -65dB, UPC < -55dB
Temperature Cycling: -20℃~-80℃
Polishing Grade: PC, UPC, APC
Connector Type: SC, FC, ST, LC,MU
Fiber type: SM(9/125㎛)
Optical performance 100% factory tested
Easy installation as plug type
Precision ceramic ferrule with endface
Geometry per IEC proposal
Environmentally stable
Adapt attenuation point to creating termination effect

Applications

Telecommunication Networks
Instrumentation
CATV Networks
Active Device Termination
EDFA

FiberStore provides all types of optical fiber terminators including SC, FC, ST, LC and MU type connector with high precision ceramic ferrule. They can be easily plugged into the systems to significantly reduce reflections from the fiber face, they can also be used with fiber adapters at the male plug end. Besides, FiberStore also provide the mechanical fiber optic termination tools such including fiber optic crimp tool to crimp or connect a connector to the end of a fiber optic cable.

FiberStore Military Grad Fiber Patch Cable Introduction

Several new lines of military tactical rated optical fiber patch cable assemblies has recently introduced by FiberStore Inc. The new military grade fiber patch cable includes single mode, multimode OM2 and OM3 and in three versions LC, SC, or ruggedized ST connectors. The new lines include stock lengths from 1 to 10 meters. FiberStore online custom cable configurator can new be used to create custom lengths with no minimum order quantities to be built-in a little as two days.

Military Grade Fiber cable are built with specialized military tactical fiber cable that features impact and crush resistance characteristics which comply with miliary requirements. Additionally, these robust assemblies are rated for operating temperatures of -40o to +75o Celsius. Three versions are available including Duplex ST, SC and LC types in any cut lengths. These assemblies are excellent for use in military vehicles and in field deployed communications equipment.

FiberStore military tactical fiber optic cable is built for the abuse of battlefield utilization. It has an outdoor-rated polyurethane jacket that resists UV radiation, cuts, abrasions and chemicals. The cable are impact resistant (meeting TIA/EIA-455-25 military specifications), crush resistant (meeting TIA/EIA-455-41 military specifications), and they support a max tensile load of 1000 Newtons (N) with a minimum bend radius (MBR) or 5.0 cm for installation.

Characteristics:
Used to connect communications equipment that utilize ST, SC or LC OM1 62.5/125 Multimode fiber interfaces
Cable meets Military requirements for crush and impact resistance & rugged Polyurethane jacket protects against cuts, abrasions and chemicals
Impact Resistance: EIA/TIA-455-25, (Military Req.) Crush Resistance: EIA/TIA-455-41, (Military Req.)
Multiple off the shelf lengths provide design flexibility and FiberStore’ Custom Cable Configurator can be create your own lengths and /or connector combinations
The connector are stainless steel bodies which resist rust and corrosion

Applications
Military networks
Industrial Ethernet
Harsh environment applications
Combat vehicles

About FiberStore
FiberStore is a one of the main fibre optic cable manufacturers of broad range of fiber optic and copper data communication cabling and connectivity solutions primarily for the enterprise market, offering an integrated suite of high quality, warranted products which operate as a system solutions for seamless integrate with other providers’ offerings. FiberStore products include fiber optic and copper cabling, fiber optic and copper connectors, specialty fiber optic and copper connectors, fiber optic and copper patch cords, LSZH cables, pre-terminated fiber optic and copper cable assemblies, racks, cabinets, datacom enclosures, fiber optic and copper patch panels, faceplates, fiber optic accessories and other cable and connectivity management accessories. FiberStore products are designed to meet the most demanding needs of end-users, delivering a high degree of reliability and outstanding performance characteristics.

Armored Fiber Optic Patch Cable Ordering Guide

Fiber optic patch cable is an important cable component for fiber optic networks, the armored fiber optic patch cables are specially designed for harsh environment in in aerospace, automotive, industrial, medical, and military applications. FiberStore provides a huge selection of armored fiber optic patch cables in any configuration, with any connectors types, cable modes, and lengths.

Armored fiber patch cable is a round, compact and very tough duplex patch cable with flexible armouring under PVC or LSZH jacket, providing exceptional crush and kinking resistance. Armored fiber patch cord is different from standard fiber optic patch cables, the very commonly used fiber optic patch cables structures is like this: fiber glass core in the center of the cable, cladding outside the fiberglass for protection, Kevlar outside the cladding, Kevlar is soft as well as very strong material, then the outside is the cable jacket. Traditional fiber optic patch cords are tender equipment, people cannot bend it too much or the fiberglass will be damaged and broken, which is not suitable for harsh environment.

Armored fiber optic patch cables are with the same types of fiber optic connectors as the commonly used types, the difference is the cable itself. Armored fiber optic cables are typically used for indoor applications, with the same outer diameter of common types 2mm or 3mm. The difference is armored fiber optic cables are with stainless steel tape just inside the cable jacket and outside the Kevlar, this stainless unit provides extra feature as well as retain all the function that a common type optical fiber patch cable can give. What’s more, armored fiber optic cords are anti-rodent, and it can be handled as electric cables. It is not easy to get damaged or cut, and it can resist an adult step on it.

Armored fiber optic patch cable ordering guide:

FiberStore supply armored fiber optic patch cables, including 10G OM4/OM3, 9/125, 62.5/125 types. 10G fiber patch cables provide 10 gigabyte data transfer speeds in high bandwidth applications and they are 5 times faster than standard 50um fiber cable. All armored fiber patch cable types can be with SC, ST, FC, LC, MU, SC/APC, ST/APC, LC/APC, etc. types of terminations.

Fiber optic connector type: LC, FC, SC, ST, MU, MTRJ, E2000
Ferrule Interface type: PC, UPC, APC
Fiber cores: Simplex, duplex, 4 fibers, 8 fibers etc.
Fiber type; single mode (G.652, G655), multimode(50/125) /(62.5/125)
100% Insertion Return Loss, End Face and Interference inspection
Low insertion loss, high return loss
Excellent mechanical endurance
Good in repeatability and exchangeability
Insertion loss: <0.5 dB
Operation temperature: -20° to 85°C
10G OM3 OM4 fiber cable available
Various jacket material, PVC and LSZH

Related: Armored LC-LC patch cord