Photonic Integrated And High-speed Optical Interconnection Technology

Currently, in the field of active optical devices, high-speed optical communication (40G/100G), broadband access FTTH, 3G and LTE wireless communication, high-speed optical interconnection, chips applied in intelligent Fiber Optic Network, device and module technologies are competing to become the hot spots of development. And the photonic integrated, high-speed optical signal modulation technique, high-speed optical device packaging technology, as the representative of the optical device platform technology are also increasingly being valued by the majority of OC manufacturers.

The Technology Development And Breakthrough Of Active Optical Devices

To meet the growing demand for bandwidth, while continuing to reduce the capital, operation and maintenance expenses, will continue to be the two main driving force to promote the development of optical communication technology. In order to meet the evolving needs of the system, the development of active optical communication device involves many technologies, however, in recent years there are several technologies deserve special attention, including 40G/100G high speed transmission device and module technology, the next generation fiber access technology, ROF (Radio Over Fiber) components and module technology, optical integration technology, high-speed interconnect optoelectronic components and modules, etc.

Optical Integration Technology Is Worth Looking Forward

Optical integrated devices due to its low cost, small, easy to large-scale assembly, high work rate, stable performance and other advantages, as early as the 1970s, it caused the world’s attention and research. In the ensuing three decades, with the rapid development of optical waveguide production technology and a variety of fine processing technology, optical integrated devices are heavily into the business, particularly some optical passive components based on Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), such as Planar Lightwave Circuit Splitter, arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and so on, have become hot products in optical communication on the market. In the field of optical active devices, the active integration products are still far from large-scale commercial, but with the successful development of some advanced technologies such as Dispersion Bridge Grating, active devices based on PLC recently made great progress.

The develop direction of optical integration technology can be divided into two categories: monolithic and hybrid integration. Monolithic integration refers to the semiconductor or optical crystal substrate, over the same production process, integrating all the components together, such as: PIC and OEIC technology; the hybrid integration refers to through different production processes, making part of the components, then assembled in the semiconductor or optical crystal substrate.

Previously, the actual production process of Si-based hybrid integration has been quite complex, but recently, a number of research institutions had improved the traditional hybrid integration technology based on flip, and made great progress. Among them, the most remarkable achievements include two items: The first is the University of California at Santa Barbara, in cooperation with Intel company researched hybrid integrated device based on Wafer level; second is the Ghent University based chip and the wafer hybrid integrated devices.

In recent years, the development of optical integration technology, making it quickly became a very worth looking forward platform technology in optic communication, is expected to be widely applied.

High-speed Optical Interconnection Technology Beyond Imagination

High speed optical interconnection technology is realized by parallel Fiber Transceiver and Ribbon Cable or fiber optic cable. Parallel optical module is based on VCSEL array and PIN array,wavelength of 850nm, suitable for 50/125 μm and 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber. Its electrical interface uses standard MegArray connectors in package, optical interface uses standard MTP/MPO ribbon cable. At present more common parallel optical transceiver module has 4 channels and 12 channels. In the current market, the more common high-speed parallel optical modules include: 4 × 3.125Gb/s (12.5Gb/s) parallel optical module, applications such as high-end computer systems, blade servers short distance interconnection; 12 × 2.725Gb/s (32.7Gb/s) parallel optical module, used in high-end switching equipment as well as backplane connection. Parallel optical module applications are gradually becoming more mature.

At present, the rise of applications such as super computer, cloud computing, short-distance high-speed data communication, directly promoting the rapid development of high-pspeed optical interconnection technology, its size of the market and technology development will beyond people’s imagination.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Cabling

Fiber optic cabling consists of strands of purified glass, or even plastic, rods that conduct specific wavelengths of light, analogous to the electrons carried along a Copper Ethernet Cable. However, light traveling through glass or plastic is not susceptible to the same problems that metal conductors are; The electromagnetic radiation that results from current traveling through a wire is not present in optical conductors, and optical conductors can be made much smaller than metal ones. Today, we’ll talk about the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable.

advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable

Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiber Optic Cable

Everything has its own advantages and disadvantages. Learning the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable, we may know how to select one when buying the cables.

Advantages

There are four advantages of fiber optic cabling, these advantages explain why fiber is becoming the preferred network cabling medium for high bandwidth, long-distance applications:

1. Immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

All copper cable network media sharing a common problem: they are susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), fiber optic cabling is immune to crosstalk because optical fiber does not conduct electricity and uses light signals in a glass fiber, rather than electrical signals along a metallic conductor to transmit data. So it cannot produce a magnetic field and thus is immune to EMI.

2. Higher Possible Data Rates

Because light is immune to interference, can be modulated at very high frequencies, and travels almost instantaneously to its destination, much higher data rates are possible with fiber optic cabling technologies than with traditional copper systems. Data rates far exceeding the gigabit per second (Gbps) range and higher are possible, and the latest IEEE standards body is working on 100Gbps fiber based applications over much longer distances than copper cabling. Multimode is preferred fiber optic type for 100-550 meters seen in LAN network, and since single mode fiber optic cables are capable of transmitting at these multi-gigabit data rates over very long distances, they are the preferred media for transcontinental and oceanic applications.

3. Longer Maximum Distances

Typical copper media data transmission by the distance limits the maximum length of less than 100 meters. Because they do not suffer from the electromagnetic interference problems of traditional copper cabling and because they do not use electrical signals that can dramatically reduce the long distance, single-mode fiber optic cables can span 75 kilometers (about 46.6 miles) without using signal-boosting repeaters.

4. Better Security

The Copper cable transmission media is susceptible to eavesdropping through taps. A tap (short for wiretap) is a device that punctures through the outer jacket of a copper cable and touches the inner conductor. The tap intercepts signals sent on a LAN and sends them to another (unwanted) location. Electromagnetic (EM) taps are similar devices, but rather than puncturing the cable,they use the cable’s magnetic fields, which are similar to the pattern of electrical signals. Because fiber optic cabling uses light instead of electrical signals, it is immune to most types of eavesdropping. Traditional taps won’t work because any intrusion on the cable will cause the light to be blocked and the connection simply won’t function. EM taps won’t work because no magnetic field is generated. Because of its immunity to traditional eavesdropping tactics, fiber optic cabling is used in networks that must remain secure, such as government and research networks.

Disadvantages

With all of its advantages, many people use fiber optic cabling. However, fiber optic cabling does have a couple of disadvantages:

1. Higher Cost

The higher cost of fiber optic cabling has little to do with the cable these days. Increases in available fiber optic cable manufacturing capacity have lowered cable prices to levels comparable to high end UTP on a per-foot basis, and the cables are no harder to pull. Ethernet hubs, switches, routers, NICs, and patch cords for UTP are very inexpensive. A high quality UTP-based 10/100/1000 auto-sensing Ethernet NIC for a PC can be purchased for less than $25. A fiber optic NIC for a PC costs at least four times as much. Similar price differences exist for hubs, routers, and switches. For an IT manager who has several hundred workstations to deploy and support, that translates to megabucks and keeps UTP a viable solution. The cost of network electronics keeps the total system cost of fiber-based networks higher than UTP, and ultimately, it is preventing a mass stampede to fiber-to-the-desk.

2. Installation

The other main disadvantage of fiber optic cabling is that it can be more difficult to install. Ethernet cable ends simply need a mechanical connection, and those connections don’t have to be perfect. Fiber optic cable can be much trickier to make connections for mainly because of the nature of the glass or plastic core of the fiber cable. When you cut or cleave (in fiber optic terms) the fiber, the unpolished end consists of an irregular finish of glass that diffuses the light signal and prevents it form guiding into the receiver correctly. The end of the fiber must be polished and a special polishing tools to make it perfectly flat so that the light will shine through correctly.

Conclusion

From the above, we have learnt the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable can help us to choose a suitable fiber cable. For more details about fiber cables, please visit FS.COM.

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