Fiber splitter, also named beam splitter, takes a single fiber optics signal and divides it into multiple signals. It is used to split one beam of optical fiber light into several parts at a certain ratio, for example, a 1X4 LC type equal splitting ratio fiber optic splitter can split the fiber optic light signal into four equal 25% parts and sent to the 4 different channels.
Based on working wavelength difference there are single window and dual window fiber optic splitters. And there are single mode fiber splitter and multimode fiber splitters. Typical connectors installed on the fiber optic splitters are FC or SC type. Splitters contain no electronics and use no power. They are the network elements that put the passive in Passive Optical Network and are available in a variety of split ratios, including 1:8, 1:16, and 1:32.
The most common type of fiber-optic splitter splits the output evenly, with half the signal going to one leg of the output and half going to the other. It is possible to get splitters that use a different split ratio, putting a larger amount of the signal to one side of the splitter than the other. Splitters are identified with a number that represents the signal division, such as 50/50 if the split is even, or 80/20 if 80% of the signal goes to one side and only 20% to the other.
Some types of the fiber-optic splitter are actually able to work in either direction. This means that if the device is installed in one way, it acts as a splitter and divides the incoming signal into two parts, sending out two separate outputs. If it is installed in reverse, it acts as a coupler, taking two incoming signals and combing them into a single output. Whether a splitter is combining light in the upstream direction or dividing light in the downstream direction, it still introduces the same attenuation to an optical input signal (a little more than 3 dB for each 1:2 split).
Fiber Optic Splitter Features:
Single Mode, multimode, and PM fiber types;
Multiple port configurations, custom length and cable diameters;
Various splitting ratios, 50:50 to 1:99;
Tube type or Box type, PLC splitter or Fused fiber optic splitter;
PC, UPC, and APC fibre optic connectors;
Available with FC, SC, ST, LC, and MU connectors.
Fiber optic splitter, is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals. Especially applied to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to achieve the branching of the optical signal.
Passive Optical Network PON splitters play an important role in Fiber to the Home (FTTH) networks by allowing a single PON network interface to be shared among many subscribers. A PON network may be designed with a single optical splitter, or it can have two or more splitters cascaded together. Since each optical connection adds attenuation, a single splitter is superior to multiple cascaded splitters. One net additional coupling (and source of attenuation) is introduced in connecting two splitters together.
A single splitter also can be used in the GPON network. Note that the splitter can be deployed in the Central Office (CO) alongside the OLT, or it may be deployed in an OutSide Plant (OSP) cabinet closer to the subscribers. What is more, A splitter can be deployed in the basement of a building for a Multiple Dwelling Unit (MDU) installation.