How to Choose Fiber Optic Cable

Most customers are not familiar with fiber optic cabling technology, which makes them to buy the right fiber optic cables for target applications very difficult. The following text describes the methods of identifying several common identifying methods for fiber optic cables, that will help you make right decision when buy optical fiber cable.

1.Cable jacket: Indoor fiber optic cables generally use poly ethylene recorded or flame retardant poly recorded ethylene appearance should be smooth and shiny, with a flexible, easy to peel. Poor low-quality fiber optic cable’s sheathes are poor finished, and easily adhere with sleeve and Kevlar

PE sheath of outdoor fiber optic cable should be high quality black polyethylene, after cabling the skin is smooth, shiny, uniform thickness, no bubbles. Poor-quality fiber optic cable’ sheath is generally produced using recycled materials, this cable’ skin is coarse, due to many impurities within the raw material, you will find a lot of very fine small pits, it will crack or become water seepage after a period’s laying.

2.Optical fibers: Some standard fiber optic cable manufacturer often use the A-level core from top vendors, while the low-cost low-quality fiber optic cables are commonly produced by C-Class, D- grade optical fiber and unsolicited smuggling optical fiber, these fibers are complex sources, with the long factory time, which is already damp and discoloration, often mixed with single-mode fiber and multimode fiber. Some small factories lack the necessary testing equipment, and can not make a judgment of the quality of the optical fiber.

3.Strengthen steel wire: Steel wires of the formal outdoor fiber optic cable manufacturer are phosphated, surface is gray, this makes it will not increase the hydrogen loss, no rust, high strength. Low-quality fiber optic cable is generally replaced with thin wire or aluminum wire Identification method is simple: white appearance, easily be bent, cables with this kinds of steel are high loss of hydrogen, a long time, the two ends for hanging fiber optic closures are more likely to be rust and cracked.

4.Steel armor: The formal manufacturing enterprises using double-sided brush vertical bandage pattern of anti-rust coating steel strip, low-quality fiber optic cable is ordinary iron, usually only one, anti-rust treatment.

5.Loose Tube: Loose tube fiber optic cables are installed with PBT materials, so the casing is strength, no deformation, anti-aging. Low-quality fiber optic cable is usually made with the PVC for
the casing, this casing diameter is thin and easily to be pinched to flat.

6.Fiber paste: Outdoor fiber optic cables fiber cream can prevent fiber oxidation, damp due to water vapor, the inferior fiber optical fiber use only a few fiber cream, seriously affect the life of the optical fiber.

7.Aramid: Also named Mingkaifula, is a high-strength chemical fiber, widely used by the military-industrial. Currently only produced in DuPont and the Netherlands, Akzotion, the price is extremely high. Indoor fiber optic cable and overhead power cables (ADSS) use Aramids as strength member, due to the high cost of Kevlar, the poor quality indoor cable outer diameter is very small.

Source: How to Choose Fiber Optic Cable

CWDM/DWDM Mux/Demux And OADM

CWDM/DWDM Mux/Demux and OADM are all fit in with Passive. CWDM and DWDM technology produce an efficient strategy to share one set of fiber strands and hang together various communications interfaces like: 10G, SONET OC-192, STM-64, Fiber Channel 1G/2G/4G, Gigabit Ethernet, OC3/OC12 or OC48 and E1/T1, simply by using different wavelengths of light for each channel. Thus they could expand the proportions from the network without laying more fiber. And that i want to introduce the actual basical description of CWDM Mux/Demux, DWDM Mux/Demux and OADM.

As you know, Mux (Multiplexer) products combine several data signals into one for transporting over the single fiber. Demux (Demulitplexer) separates the signals at the opposite end. Each signal are at an alternative wavelength.

CWDM Mux/Demux
The Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing-CWDM Mux/Demux is often a flexible plug-and-play network solution, which helps insurers and enterprise companies to affordably implement denote point or ring based WDM optical networks. CWDM Mux/demux is perfectly suitable for transport PDH, SDH / SONET, ETHERNET services over WWDM, CWDM and DWDM in optical metro edge and access networks. CWDM tools are widely used in less precision optics and lower cost, un-cooled lasers with lower maintenance requirements. Weighed against DWDM and Conventional WDM, CWDM is a bit more affordable and much less power usage of laser devices. CWDM Multiplexer Modules can be found in 4, 8 and 16 channel configurations. These modules passively multiplex the optical signal outputs from 4 excessively electronic products, send on them somebody optical fiber and de-multiplex the signals into separate, distinct signals for input into gadgets along the opposite end for your fiber optic link.

DWDM Mux/Demux
The Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing-DWDM Mux/Demux Modules are built to multiplex multiple DWDM channels into 1 or 2 fibers. Depending on type CWDM Mux/Demux unit, with optional expansion, can transmit and receive around 4, 8, 16 or 32 connections of standards, data rates or protocols more than one single fiber optic link without disturbing the other person. DWDM MUX/DEMUX modules provides best and low-cost bandwidth upgrade on your current fiber optic communication networks.

OADM
OADM(Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer) is often a device utilized in WDM systems for multiplexing and routing different channels of fiber into or out of a single mode fiber (SMF). OADM is made to optically add/drop one or multiple CWDM/DWDM channels into one or two fibers, provides capacity to add or drop an individual wavelength or multi-wavelengths from the fully multiplexed optical signal. This enables intermediate locations between remote sites gain access to the regular, point-to-point fiber segment linking them. Wavelengths not dropped pass-through the OADM and continue on in direction of the remote site. Additional selected wavelengths can be added or came by successive OADMS if required.

Ingellen provides a range of passive optics. The modules are customizable with a range of WDM/CWDM/DWDM modules and CWDM OADM or DWDM OADM . Ingellen is the best ones to ask about for guidance for use of CWDM, DWDM or WDM technology. CWDM and DWDM Mux/Demux produce an ideal balance of price and satisfaction for multiplexing and demultiplexing in Metro/Access networks.

Details about CWDM Technology

CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical signals on one fiber optic strand by making use of different wavelengths, or colors, of laser light to hold different signals. CWDM technology uses ITU standard 20nm spacing within the wavelengths, from 1270nm to 1610nm.

CWDM In comparison with DWDM
Accordingly, they’ve got two important characteristics built into systems employing CWDM optical components which permit easier and for that reason also less expensive than in DWDM systems. CWDM is very easy in terms of network design, implementation, and operation. CWDM works together few parameters that want optimization from the user, while DWDM systems require complex calculations of balance of power per channel, which is further complicated when channels are added and removed or when it’s utilized in DWDM networks ring, particularly if systems incorporate optical amplifiers.

CWDM Function
CWDM modules perform two functions. First, they filter the lighting, ensuring only the desired wavelengths are used. Second, they multiplex or demultiplex multiple wavelengths, which are put on just one fiber link. The real difference is in the wavelengths, which might be used. In CWDM space, the 1310-band as well as the 1550-band are broken into smaller bands, each only 20-nm wide. Inside multiplex operation, the multiple wavelength bands are combined onto just one fiber. Within the demultiplex operation, the multiple wavelength bands are separated from one fiber.

Generally, a CWDM network takes two forms. A point-to-point system connects two locations, muxing and demuxing multiple signals for a passing fancy fiber. A loop or multi-point system connects multiple locations, typically using Add/Drop modules.

CWDM Modules Types
CWDM Modules utilize thin-film coating and micro optics package technology. CWDM modules consider two main configurations: CWDM Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (CWDM Demux) modules and CWDM Add/Drop Multiplexer (CWDM OADM) modules.

Mux products will include a few statistics symptoms in a only for having using a one-time fabric. Demux isolate all of the symptoms inside various terminate. Any value reaches an extra wavelength.

CWDM Mux/demux are created to multiplex multiple CWDM channels into One or two fibers. Within a hybrid configuration (mux/demux), multiple transmit and receive signals can be combined onto a single fiber. Each signal is assigned a different wavelength. At each and every end, transmit signals are muxed, while receive signals are demuxed. CWDM Mux/demux can be a flexible plug-and-play network solution, allowing carriers and enterprise companies to cheaply implement examine point or ring based WDM optical networks. CWDM Mux/demux is modular, scalable and it’s perfectly suited to transport PDH, SDH / SONET, ETHERNET services over WWDM, CWDM and DWDM in optical metro edge and access networks.

The most popular configuration of CWDM mux/demux is 2CH, 4CH, 5CH, 8CH, 9CH, 16CH and 18CH CWDM MUX/DEMUX. 3 Single fiber or dual fiber connection for CWDM Mux/demux can also be found. These modules passively multiplex the optical signal outputs from 4 or higher electronics, send to them merely one optical fiber and then de-multiplex the signals into separate, distinct signals for input into technology along at the opposite end in the fiber optic link.

XFP Transceiver Module Concept

XFP transceiver belongs to 10G optical module, with LC connector, the maximum transmission is 80KM. XFP (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable) is a hot-swappable optical transceiver, independent of the communication protocol, usually the size is 850nm, 1310nm or 1550nm for the 10G bps SONET / SDH, Fibre Channel, gigabit Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet and other applications, including DWDM link. XFP contains similar SFF-8472 digital diagnostic modules, but extended to provide a robust management tools. XFI electrical interface specification is part of the XFP Multi Source Agreement specifications. XFP developed by the XFP Multi Source Agreement Group.

The optical transceiver is actually just a photoelectric conversion device, only responsible for the completion of the optical / electrical signal conversion, other functions, such as multiplexing / demultiplexing, 64B/66B codec by the chip implementation of the circuit board. XFP optical module can easily achieve high port density applications, XFP occupied area of only the Xenpak the 20% of the printed circuit board (PCB), the power consumption is only 1.5 to 2 W, can be used to achieve up to 16-port line card.

XFP interface with the circuit board using the 10G serial circuit interface (XFI-). Now provided by the manufacturer XSBI-to-XFI and XAUI-to-XFI chip, the XGMII-to-XFI chip manufacturers in the development.

Because XFP just an optical transceiver, so has nothing to do with the protocol can be generally applied to 10G Ethernet 10GFC and OC-192 SDH, universality of application conducive to equipment manufacturers increase purchases, so as to achieve the purpose of reducing costs. Addition, XFP provides a two-wire serial interface, can achieve the data diagnosis function, real-time monitoring of the optical module of various parameters, such as temperature, the laser bias current, transmitted light power, the received optical power, working voltage, etc..

XFI electrical interface specification is part of the specification of the XFP Multi Source Agreement by the XFP Multi Source Agreement Group development. In recent years, due to the speed of the fiber-optic network, the 10G XFP optical module applications become increasingly widespread.

Reference: XFP Transceiver Wiki

What’s Fiber Optic Transceiver Module

Fiber optic transceiver definition:

Fiber optic transceiver is an important device in the optical fiber communication systems, which can be performed between the photoelectric signal conversion, with the receiving and transmitting functions. The fiber optic module is typically composed by the optoelectronic devices, the functional circuit and the optical interface, the optoelectronic device includes a transmitter and receiver in two parts.

Classification of fiber optic modules:
In accordance with the rate min: 100Base (Fast Ethernet applications), 1000Base (Gigabit) 10GESDH applications 155M, 622M, 2.5G, 10G.

According to the package: 1 × 9, SFF, SFP, GBIC, XENPAK, XFP, 1 × 9 package – welding optical module, the general speed is not higher than gigabit, most SC interface. SFF package – welding small package optical modules, general speed is not higher than gigabit, LC interface. SF (SmallFormFactor) small package optical modules using advanced precision optics and integrated circuit technology, size is only half of the ordinary duplex SC (1X9)-type optical transceiver module, doubling the number of optical ports in the same space. GBIC Package – hot-swappable Gigabit Interface optical module, SC connector. GBIC is the abbreviation of Giga Bitrate Interface Converter. The interface devices that convert Gigabit electrical signals to optical signals. SFP package – hot-plug small package module, currently the highest data rate of up to 4G, the use of LC interface, SFP can be considered as an upgraded version of GBIC. XENPAK package for Gigabit Ethernet application, using SC interface, XFP package – 10G optical modules that can be used in Gigabit Ethernet, SONET and other systems, with LC interface.

Main parameters of the fiber optic transceiver:
TxLOP: Optical Average Power: average transmission optical power refers to the signal logic of 1 of the light power and the arithmetic mean value of 0 of the light power. P0 + P1 PAVG = 2 (dBm).
ER: Extinction Ratio: signal logic as 1 when the light power is 0 when the optical power of the size of the ratio of the calculation formula as: P1ER = 10log P0 (dB) of ER represents the extinction ratio, dB, P1 of and P0 respectively represent the logic 1 and 0 when the optical power.

Receiver Sensitivity: to measure minimum average optical power received by the receiving side is required to guarantee a certain bit error rate (1 × 10exp (-12)), in units of dBm. Error rate refers to the longer period of time, after The error symbol number and error detector output terminal received in the receiving side of the photoelectric conversion ratio of the number of symbols is given.

LOS Assert and LOS Dessert: The receiver output to an electrical signal, the the potential height reflects received by the receiver of the light signal intensity is sufficient, this potential with a preset potential in order to determine the light whether the signal is lost. potential comparison using a comparator with hysteresis effect to achieve, usually as by default the optical power of the electrical signal corresponding instructions, in units of dBm.

EMM: Eye Mask Margin: means eye amplitude in the optimum sampling point. “Open” the extent of the degree of opening of the eye diagram of the distortion-free should be 100 [[%]] The eye diagram template tolerance refers to the eye diagram template expansion, until the eye diagram of the sampling point to enter to the expansion of the region the template’s largest expansion percentage.

Ingellen Technology supplies a complete range of fiber optic network transceiver modules, well come to www.ingellen.com.

Article source from Fiber Optic Transceiver Module Definition, Classification and Parameter