The Optical Splitters for FTTX Applications

fiber splitter is a very important passive component that used in the optical network system to achieve the optical singles’ coupling, branching, and distributing, just the same with the coacial cable transmission system does. An optical splitter is fiber optical tandem device with multiple import or output terminals. Generally we often use M x N to indicate a splitter with M import and N output numbers. The optical splitters that used in the CATV system, are generally 1 x 2, 1 x 3 or the 1 x N fiber splitters that composed by them.

Fiber optic splitter is the passive components for FTTH PON (passive optical network). Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GPON) splitters play an important role in Fiber to the Home (FTTH) networks by allowing a single PON network interface to be shared among many subscribers. Networks implementing BPON, GPON, EPON, 10G EPON, and 10G GPON technologies all use these simple optical splitters.

Every passive optical network, no matter GPON, EPON systems are comprised by the Optical Line Termination (OLT), the Optical Network Unit (ONU) and Optical Distribution Network (ODN). The ODN is the most important component is the FTTx systems which is the physical channel of the optical transmission between the OLT and ONU. It is composed by fiber optic cables, optical connectors, and most importantly, the fiber splitters as well as ancillary equipment connecting these devices.


There are two basic splitter technologies for the passive optical network: Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) and Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), which correspond with to types of fiber splitters, FBT splitter, also know as FBT coupler, and PLC splitter. Fused Biconical Taper is the older technology and generally introduces more loss than the newer PLC splitters.

The PLC Splitter contains no electronics and use no power. both PLC and FBT splitters are used in PON networks. A PON network may be designed with a single optical splitter, or it can have two or more splitters cascaded together. Since each optical connection will add the optical attenuation, a single splitter is superior to multiple cascaded splitters. One net additional coupling (and source of attenuation) is introduced in connecting two splitters together.

With the accessing network construction boom and the increasing subscribers trend in the market. PLC splitter will no double to become the main force in the market, the PLC optical splitters has the features of digitization, networking, broadband, miniaturization and easy maintenance, etc.

SFP Plus Transceiver With Newest Industrial Standard

SFP plus Transceiver (Small Form-Factor Pluggable) is the upgraded version of the former SFP transceiver (mini GBIC), with higher data rate and new industrial standards. It is smaller than any of the currently shipping form factors and provides the highest density per line card. SFP plus offers customers both immediate benefits and long-term advantages in supporting evolving data center needs. The SFP plus specification was first published on May 9, 2006, and version 4.1 published on July 6, 2009. It is a international industry format supported by many network component vendors.

SFP plus is an innovative, next-generation transceiver module. Initially, it is targeted to support speeds of 10 Gbps for next-generation Gigabit Ethernet applications and 8.5Gbps Fiber Channel systems. What is more, SFP plus is with lower power consumption for less than 1W and it is even cost effective. These transceivers are with managed digital optical monitoring and superior high temperature performance.

Several industrial acknowledged standards for SFP plus has been released for 10Gpbs networks, including 10Gbase-SR, which define the SFP plus transceiver working with OM3 10G multimode fiber at 30 to 300 meters range, 10Gbase-LR which define the SFP plus transceiver working with single mode fiber at 10km range, 10Gbase-LRM which define the FDDI multimode fiber at around 220 meters range.

Compare With XENPAK or XFP Modules
In comparison to earlier XENPAK or XFP modules, SFP plus transceiver is with more compact size compared with the former 10G transceivers X2 and Xenpak, leave more circuitry to be implemented on the host board instead of inside the module.
The advantages of  SFP plus transceiver:
SFP+ Has A More Compact Form Factor Package Than X2 And XFP.
It Can Connect With The Same Data Rate Of XFP, X2 And XENPAK Directly.
The Cost Of SFP+ Is Lower Than XFP, X2 And XENPAK.

SFP plus transceiver is interchangeable with SFP transceiver and can be used in the same cages as SFP transceiver. For 10G applications,  SFP plus transceiver has a smaller footprint and lower power consumption than XFP transceiver. The electrical interface to the host board for SFP transceiver and  SFP plus transceiver is the same serial.

Many companies, such as Cisco, Finisar, and Sumitomo, have released  SFP plus transceivers. SFP plus ensure the 10Gbps data transmission and the most densely installation capability as well as the lowest cost, currently it is well acknowledged as the ultimate choice for the 10Gbps fiber optic transceivers. Among them, Cisco SFP+ transceiver is the mainstream market. Cisco 10Gbase SFP+ transceivers are used for high speed 10Gigabit Ethernet, linking the equipment to fiber optic networks. Cisco SFP+ products include active SFP+ cables and SFP+ transceivers. There is also copper transceiver available from Cisco.

Typical Protocol Converter

protocol converter is  device used in telecommunications and networking to switch the protocol of one machine to match another protocol, as each protocol based on many factors. Protocol converter allows the different machines to work together — as long as the converter supports the protocols of each machine. The major protocol translation messages involve transformation of data, commands, representation, encoding and framing to achieve the conversion. Most converters have a database with several protocols, and this database is used to convert the initial protocol to another format.

The Protocol Converter connects directly to equipment and converts SNMP, BACnet, and Modbus protocols to one or more of these same protocols for integration into a building management system (BMS) or network management system (NMS). The protocol converter is ideal for situations where data from monitored equipment is incompatible with the protocols used by the BMS or NMS, such as in cases where legacy monitoring systems are present.

Applications of Protocol Converters
Protocol Converter applications vary from industry to industry. The protocol converter can be a software converter, hardware converter, or an integrated converter depending on the protocols.

Some of the key applications are:
Substation Automation;
Building Automation;
Process Automation.

Typical Types
Protocol converter provide local, remote loop-back functions, commanded remote device loop-back in addition to pseudo-random code testing functionality; loop-back functionality can be employed without influence on normal network data verbal exchanges and may definitely not end in this meltdown of network. Typical Protocol converters types include E1/V.35/V.24/RS485/RS232/RS422 protocol converter.

E1 to Ethernet Protocol Converter
E1 to Ethernet 10/100Base-T Protocol Converter adopts the ASIC chip which features simple circuits and compact structure and enhances the reliability of the integrated equipment. It provides data transmission channels at a maximum bandwidth of 2.048M for the Ethernet over coaxial cables and connects two LANs through coaxial cables. E1 port can certainly support 120 ohm/75 ohm amount of resistance in unison.

V.35 to Ethernet Converter
E1 to V.35 protocol converter provides physical conversion between ITU G.703 standard E1 interface and V.35 Interface. Equipments with V.35 interface but without G.703 interface such router and multiplexer is able to transmit data via E1 multiplexer or E1 channel with E1-V.35 protocol converter.

V.35 user port can certainly support N*64K (N=1~32) adaptive rate, which enables it to service central, additional and slave clock modes, so that you can possibly be taken to help a variety of apps; and it also can figure under DTE and DCE modes. E1 to V.35 protocol converter realizes the bi-directional data transfer from E1 port to V. 35 network. This equipment is used in communication network including WAN and LAN, realizing the transfer from E1 channel of SDH or PDH equipment to V. 35, which maybe provided by routers.

E1 to RS232 RS422 RS485 Converter
RS232 port can certainly service this a adaptive rate lower than 115.2K. Ethernet protocol convertor can certainly diagnose this giving in addition to having facts notice connected with E1 port on auto-pilot, in addition to switch off Ethernet function on auto-pilot.

Protocol converter are normally used with Switches, PCIe network cards and fiber media converters, CWDM and DWDM equipment, PDH multiplexers etc. Ingellen provides protocol converters for E1 to Ethernet Converter, V.35 to Ethernet Converter, E1 to V.35 or V.24 Converter and E1 to RS232 RS422 RS485 Converter, NxE1/ETH with E1/2E1/4E1/8E1/16E1 to ETH/2ETH/4ETH ports and tdm over ip converter, there are card types and standalone in 19 inch rack for choice.

Why We Need Fiber Media Converter

Fiber Media Converter is an economic devices used in networking more often nowadays, it is definitely an optical converter designed for the fiber optic area. But why it is necessary in network field?

The reason why we need to use fiber media converter is, the Ethernet signals is transmitted by UTP cables, but UTP cables have some shortages, whose transmission distance is 100 meters only). As you know, 100 meters obviously can not meet the requirement in many actual network currently. On the contrary, fiber cables are able to transmit signal for a very long distance and fiber optic signals are more secured and light in weight. So we can use fiber media converter to transform betweem the two types signals and extend the network range. With the manufacturing technology being more and more mature, the cost to use fiber is decreasing. Above reasons are enough to show fiber media converter is necessary and economic. Sometimes the enterprises need to connect their copper based networks directly to the fiber backbone, the fiber media converter also plays a good role there.

Benefits Of Fiber Media Converters

Fiber media converters support many different data communication protocols including Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, T1/E1/J1, DS3/E3, as well as multiple cabling types such as coax, twisted pair, multi-mode and single-mode fiber optics. Fiber media converters also ocan connect different lan (LAN) media, modifying duplex and speed settings. When expanding the reach from the LAN to span multiple locations, media converters are useful in connecting multiple LANs to create one large campus area network that spans on the limited geographic area. As premises networks are primarily copper-based, fiber converter can extend the reach of the LAN over single-mode fiber up to 130 kilometers with 1550 nm optics.

The benefits of media conversion include providing a gradual migration path from copper to fiber. Fiber connections can reduce electromagnetic interference. Also, fiber media converters pose like a cheap solution for those who want to buy switches for use with fiber but don’t have the funds to pay for them, they are able to buy ordinary switches and use fiber media converters to make use of with their fiber optic network.

Ingellen offers an extensive choice of full-featured Ethernet to fiber optic media converter solutions, enable the extension of multimode to single mode or multimode to multimode fiber connections to distances up to 160km. Fiber optic converter products supplied by Ingellen include copper to fiber and fiber to fiber media conversion in the following supported converters: fast Ethernet media converter, Gigabit Media Converter, protocol converter, PDH Multiplexer, 10/100/1000Base Fiber Media Converter, fiber optic modems (like RS422, RS232, RS485, E1 Multiplexer and so on) and more. Choose Ingellen Technology for the right product to meet your fiber conversion project needs.

Fiber Optic Termination Box Introduction

Fiber optic terminal box generally refer to the box shape fiber optic management products used to protect and distribute the optical fiber links in FTTH Networks. Usually the fiber optic boxes include the optical distribution frame and fiber optic terminal box. In general, fiber terminal box is for a few closed cores, and the open type is called ODF (optical distribution frame). Fiber termination boxes can be with 12 cores or 24 cores.

Fiber optic termination box is used to connect the two sections of fiber optic cable. The termination box is the access to the place of the ends of the cable, and then connect to the optical switches via the fiber patch cables. Therefore, the terminal box is usually installed on a 19-inch rack, and can accommodate a number of cable ends. Fiber terminal box is similar with cross connect cabinet, but the role is different. Cross connect cabinet is to connect tow fiber cables, while the terminal box is used to connect the fiber cable terminal with the pigtails with a protective effect. In practical work, roles of cross connect cabinet and fiber termination boxes are different, cross connect cabinets are divided into fiber cable cross connect cabinet and copper cross connect cabinet, which are used when front cable premising, while fiber termination boxes are used for protecting the cable terminal from external damages. Optical distribution frame can also be divided into fiber optic patch panels and copper patch panels, they are the same role with cross connect cabinet, but they are used indoor of carriers’data center.

Applications of fiber termination boxes is universal, they are widely used in telephone, agricultural telephone network system, data and image transmission system, CATV cable television series, indoor cable through force access and branch connection, played the role of the pigtail disk storage and protection of joint.

Actually there are too many fiber optic boxes and fiber management devices, they are hard to count the types, many fiber termination box manufacturers like Ingelen Technology will make the fiber optic boxes according to their own design and they may give the fiber optic boxes different names and model numbers.