CWDM Solutions Provided by Ingellen

CWDM technology involves the applications of CWDM products such as CWDM MUX/DEMUX, CWDM SFP, CWDM add-drop multiplexer and other related products. This article is about what is CWDM stand for, the advantages of CWDM and what devices or products needed for the CWDM solutions.

As we know, broadband has unveiled a new world for subscribers, full of advanced capabilities and faster speeds. Fiber optic connections typically require two strands of fiber – one for transmitting and one for receiving signals. But, what happens when you need to add services or customers, there are three options, 1) installing more cables, 2) increasing system bitrate to multiplex more signals or 3) wavelength division multiplexing. Obviously, the first two selections are all need more investment on the existing systems, which are all not the cost-effective ones. Only the third alternative, WDM (wavelength division multiplexing), allows using current electronics and current fibers and simply shares fibers by transmitting different channels at different color (wavelengths) of the light.

There is Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing for WDM technology, Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing (CWDM) technology is the most effective solution for expanding bandwidth and has many advantages over DWDM technology in terms of system costs, set-up, maintenance, and scalability.

Coarse wavelength division multiplexing are realized by the used of CWDM modules, which combines or split up to 18 optical signals over one single fiber optic link. Each signal carried can be at a different rate and in a different format. CWDM technology uses an ITU standard 20nm spacing between the wavelengths, from 1310nm to 1610nm. CWDM is coarse wavelength multiplexing technology for city and access networks.

CWDM Modules utilize thin-film coating and micro optics package technology which is available in two main configurations: CWDM Mux/Demux modules and CWDM OADM modules. The CWDM solution we offer has the ability to multiplex up to9 (8+1) different fiber links over the same physical circuit. The operation range can reach up to120Km, depending on optical modules used.The total maximum capacity is 1.25G x 9 =11.25G.

CWDM Solutions by Ingellen
Benefits of CWDM
Passive equipment that uses no electrical power
Much lower cost per channel than DWDM
Scalability to grow the fiber capacity as needed
With little or no increased cost
Protocol transparent
CWDM can provide connectivity for multiple Wireless Carriers using virtually any protocol to the cell tower over a single strand of fiber.

Ingellen provides CWDM modules with various kinds of connectors and cable length and optional stainless tube package or standard box package and to meet your requirement. We offer 2 channel CWDM Mux/Demux, 4 channel CWDM Mux/Demux …up to 18 channel CWDM Mux/Demux modules and 1-16 channels CWDM OADM. Our CWDM modules are configured by number of channels for any customer-specify channel plan, and can be integrated with taps and detectors for a complete CWDM solution. All of these CWDM modules come with compact size, Low Insertion Loss, Bi-directional and Environmentally Independent features.

A Wide Range Of 10 Gigabit Optic Transceivers

Data shows, 10G optical modules will be the hottest optical devices in the next few years. Currently most often used 10G optical transceivers are the following: Xenpak, XFP, X2 and SFP+ modules. They are available in different wavelengths like 850nm, 1310nm and 1550nm. These multi-rate optical transceivers are ideal for enterprise and metro networks along with storage applications requiring fiber channel over Ethernet.

Xenpak is the launch of the first generation of 10G Ethernet optical module using the standard IEEE 802.3ae 10G additional unit interface (XAUI) as the data path. XENPAK modules are supplied for physical layer interfaces supporting multi-mode and single mode fiber optic cables and InfiniBand copper cables with connectors known as CX4. Transmission distances vary from 100 metres (330 ft) to 80 kilometres (50 mi) for fiber and up to 15 metres (49 ft) on CX4 cable. Newer XENPAKs using the 10GBase-LX4 standard operated using multiple wavelengths on legacy multi-mode fibres at distances of up to 300 metres (980 ft), eliminating the need to reinstall cable in a building when upgrading certain 1 Gbit/s circuits to 10 Gbit/s.

The XFP (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable) is a standard for transceivers for high-speed computer network and telecommunication links that use optical fiber, along with its interface to other electrical components which is called XFI. XFP modules typically operate at near-infrared wavelengths (colors) of 850 nm, 1310 nm or 1550 nm. Principal applications include 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, synchronous optical networking (SONET) at OC-192 rates, synchronous optical networking STM-64, 10 Gbit/s Optical Transport Network (OTN) OTU-2, and parallel optics links. They can operate over a single wavelength or use dense wavelength-division multiplexing techniques. XFP modules use an LC fiber connector type, making it easily achieve high port density applications.

10G X2 transceiver can be a standardized form factor for 10 Gb/s fiber optic transponders that is used for data transfer rates from 10.3 Gb/s to 10.5 Gb/s. It really is protocol-specific: Either 10G Ethernet or 10G Fibre Channel versions are available. X2 transceivers are used in datacom optical links only (not telecom), plus they are small compared to old generation XENPAK transceivers. Its electrical interface for the host board can also be standardized and is also called XAUI (4 x 3.125 Gb/s).

The enhanced small form-factor pluggable (SFP+) is an enhanced version of the SFP that supports data rates up to 10 Gbit/s, which is the newest industry format supported by many network component vendors. SFP+ supports 8 Gbit/s Fibre Channel, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and Optical Transport Network standard OTU2. Consideration has to be given to whether the module is linear or limiting. Linear SFP+ modules are most appropriate for 10GBASE-LRM; otherwise, limiting modules are preferred.

Compared with other optical modules, XFP optical transceiver is the shape most compact cost is the lowest, and therefore has a great advantage. XFP has been following Xenpak or X2 after a new generation of products, inexpensive optical module, somewhat similar to the miniaturization of Gigabit Ethernet pluggable optical module (SFP). XFP module occupied area is only 20% of the Xenpak of printed circuit board (PCB), the power consumption is only 1.5 to 2 W, can be used to achieve up to 16-port line card. SFP+ Transceivers leave more circuitry to be implemented on the host board instead of inside the module. They provide customers a dual-rate interface for 10 Gigabit Ethernet and Packet-over-SONET/SDH (POS) connectivity.

Cisco Transceiver Types Offered by Ingellen

This article is mainly written to introduce types of Cisco transceivers or Cisco compatible transceivers in the market, at the beginning, let confirm everyone know what Cisco stands for.
Cisco System, Inc. or Cisco, is the world leader in fiber optic networking that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate. Established in 1984, it has become the major provider of Internet solutions, his equipment and software products are widely used for the computer network systems connections.
Cisco transceivers is one of the popular products in the fiber optic transmission process, so does the Cisco compatible transceiver modules because transceivers need to fully compatible with the related router or switches to work formally if they are all belongs to Cisco brand. This article will introduce you type of Cisco transceivers.

Cisco transceivers are classified by the package forms, from the earliest, there are 1×9, SFF, GBIC, SFP, X2, XENPAK, SFP+, XFP Currently, the most popular types in the applications is the later six, which are Cisco SFP, Cisco GBIC, 10G Cisco transceivers SFP+, XENPAK, XFP, and X2.

Cisco GBIC is a hot-swappable input/output device that plugs into a Gigabit Ethernet port or slot, connecting the port with the network. It adopt SC connector type, which is a progress versus the previous 1×9 and SFF.

Cisco Xenpak is with SC connector, and is one of the early developed 10Gbps fiber optic transceivers developed by Cisco, based on the Xenpak Multi-source Agreement (MSA) which was instigated by Agilent Technologies and Agere Systems.

Cisco X2 is a hot swappable products designed for 10Gbps applications. It supports a wide range of 10Gbps standards, include the 10Gbps Ethernet, OC192/STM-6 SONET/SDH, OC192 VSR and 10G Fibre Channel.

Cisco SFP+, also called Cisco SFP plus, is another 10Gigabit Ethernet transceivers, used to link the equipment to the fiber optic networks. Cisco SFP+ is currently the smallest size 10G transceivers, with much lighter weight and lower power consumptions compared with the formaer 10G X2, and Xenpak. Typical Cisco SFP+ modules includes SFP-10G-SR, SFP-10G-LR, etc.

Cisco XFP are hot swappable I/O devices to plugs in the ports or slots on the 10G ports and link these ports to optical fiber networks. It is also used for 10Gigabit Ethernet and related 10G applications. XFP MSA is a multi source agreement by various manufacturers in this industry. Typical Cisco XFP are XFP-10G-MM-SR, XFP-10GB-SR, XFP-10GB-LR, etc.

The last is Let’s see Cisco SFP transceiver, or say Cisco Gigabit Ethernet SFP, the upgraded version of GBIC transceiver, are Small Form-Factor Pluggable for Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and several other communications. Typical Cisco optical transceiver modules are like GLC-SX-MM, the Cisco 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet SFP, while for copper SFP is GLC-T, Cisco GLC-T SFP, it also can be called Cisco 1000base-T SFP, which works with Category 5 wiring for max 100 meters span, which is compliant to 1000Base-T standards for Gigabit Ethernet.

Ingellen is a leading manufacturer or supplier of Cisco GLC-T and other Cisco SFP or more Cisco compatible transceivers. We have large quality of Cisco compatible transceivers in stock and can ship them to you within 245 hours. All of our Cisco transceivers are tested strictly before shipment. And they will arrive in perfect physical and working condition at your hands. You can buy from us with the cheapest price and a lifetime warranty.

Multiplexers Used In Communication

A multiplexer, sometimes referred to a multiplexor or simply a mux, is an electronic device that selects from several input signals and transmits to one or more output signals, can be considered as a multiple-input, single-output switch. A Phone Optical Multiplexer is an example of a very large virtual multiplexer that is built from many smaller, discrete ones. An electronic multiplexer makes it possible for multiple signals to share one device or resource, for example, one A/D converter or one communication line, instead of having one device per input signal.

Multiplexers connect or control, multiple input lines called “channels” consisting of either 2, 4, 8 or 16 individual inputs, one at a time to an output. A multiplexer is often used with a complementary demultiplexer on the receiving end. A demultiplexer (or demux) is a single-input, multiple-output switch. At the receiving end, a demux, chooses the correct destination from the many possible destinations by applying the same principle in reverse.

Generally, multiplexers are used as one method of reducing the number of logic gates required in a circuit or when a single data line is required to carry two or more different digital signals. It selects one of many analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line. A multiplexer of 2n inputs has n select lines, which are used to select which input line to send to the output.

Multiplexers also are used in building digital semiconductors such as central processing units (CPUs) and graphics controllers. In these applications, the number of inputs is generally a multiple of two, the number of outputs is either one or relatively small multiple of two, and the number of control signals is related to the combined number of inputs and outputs.

Types of multiplexers are used in communications. In its simplest form, a multiplexer will have two signal inputs, one control input and one output. One example of an analog multiplexer is the source control on a home stereo unit that allows the user to choose between the audio from a compact disc (CD) player, digital versatile disc (DVD) player and cable television line.

There are some more complex forms of multiplexers. Time-division multiplexers(or TDM), for example, have the same input/output characteristics as other multiplexers, but instead of having control signals, they alternate between all possible inputs at precise time intervals. Alternatively, a digital TDM multiplexer may combine a limited number of constant bit rate digital data streams into one data stream of a higher data rate, by forming data frames consisting of one timeslot per channel. Time-division multiplexers generally are built as semiconductor devices, or chips, but they also can be built as optical devices for fiber optic applications.

PDH Multiplexer designs for highly integrated structure and provides 16 standard E1 interfaces together with one channel of order wire, with self-contained alarm and NM functions, as well as self-testing and E1 loop-back testing functions. While, digital multiplexer is constructed from individual analogue switches encased in a single IC package as opposed to the “mechanical” type selectors such as normal conventional switches and relays.

The Optical Splitters for FTTX Applications

fiber splitter is a very important passive component that used in the optical network system to achieve the optical singles’ coupling, branching, and distributing, just the same with the coacial cable transmission system does. An optical splitter is fiber optical tandem device with multiple import or output terminals. Generally we often use M x N to indicate a splitter with M import and N output numbers. The optical splitters that used in the CATV system, are generally 1 x 2, 1 x 3 or the 1 x N fiber splitters that composed by them.

Fiber optic splitter is the passive components for FTTH PON (passive optical network). Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GPON) splitters play an important role in Fiber to the Home (FTTH) networks by allowing a single PON network interface to be shared among many subscribers. Networks implementing BPON, GPON, EPON, 10G EPON, and 10G GPON technologies all use these simple optical splitters.

Every passive optical network, no matter GPON, EPON systems are comprised by the Optical Line Termination (OLT), the Optical Network Unit (ONU) and Optical Distribution Network (ODN). The ODN is the most important component is the FTTx systems which is the physical channel of the optical transmission between the OLT and ONU. It is composed by fiber optic cables, optical connectors, and most importantly, the fiber splitters as well as ancillary equipment connecting these devices.


There are two basic splitter technologies for the passive optical network: Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) and Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), which correspond with to types of fiber splitters, FBT splitter, also know as FBT coupler, and PLC splitter. Fused Biconical Taper is the older technology and generally introduces more loss than the newer PLC splitters.

The PLC Splitter contains no electronics and use no power. both PLC and FBT splitters are used in PON networks. A PON network may be designed with a single optical splitter, or it can have two or more splitters cascaded together. Since each optical connection will add the optical attenuation, a single splitter is superior to multiple cascaded splitters. One net additional coupling (and source of attenuation) is introduced in connecting two splitters together.

With the accessing network construction boom and the increasing subscribers trend in the market. PLC splitter will no double to become the main force in the market, the PLC optical splitters has the features of digitization, networking, broadband, miniaturization and easy maintenance, etc.