Details about CWDM Technology

CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical signals on one fiber optic strand by making use of different wavelengths, or colors, of laser light to hold different signals. CWDM technology uses ITU standard 20nm spacing within the wavelengths, from 1270nm to 1610nm.

CWDM In comparison with DWDM
Accordingly, they’ve got two important characteristics built into systems employing CWDM optical components which permit easier and for that reason also less expensive than in DWDM systems. CWDM is very easy in terms of network design, implementation, and operation. CWDM works together few parameters that want optimization from the user, while DWDM systems require complex calculations of balance of power per channel, which is further complicated when channels are added and removed or when it’s utilized in DWDM networks ring, particularly if systems incorporate optical amplifiers.

CWDM Function
CWDM modules perform two functions. First, they filter the lighting, ensuring only the desired wavelengths are used. Second, they multiplex or demultiplex multiple wavelengths, which are put on just one fiber link. The real difference is in the wavelengths, which might be used. In CWDM space, the 1310-band as well as the 1550-band are broken into smaller bands, each only 20-nm wide. Inside multiplex operation, the multiple wavelength bands are combined onto just one fiber. Within the demultiplex operation, the multiple wavelength bands are separated from one fiber.

Generally, a CWDM network takes two forms. A point-to-point system connects two locations, muxing and demuxing multiple signals for a passing fancy fiber. A loop or multi-point system connects multiple locations, typically using Add/Drop modules.

CWDM Modules Types
CWDM Modules utilize thin-film coating and micro optics package technology. CWDM modules consider two main configurations: CWDM Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (CWDM Demux) modules and CWDM Add/Drop Multiplexer (CWDM OADM) modules.

Mux products will include a few statistics symptoms in a only for having using a one-time fabric. Demux isolate all of the symptoms inside various terminate. Any value reaches an extra wavelength.

CWDM Mux/demux are created to multiplex multiple CWDM channels into One or two fibers. Within a hybrid configuration (mux/demux), multiple transmit and receive signals can be combined onto a single fiber. Each signal is assigned a different wavelength. At each and every end, transmit signals are muxed, while receive signals are demuxed. CWDM Mux/demux can be a flexible plug-and-play network solution, allowing carriers and enterprise companies to cheaply implement examine point or ring based WDM optical networks. CWDM Mux/demux is modular, scalable and it’s perfectly suited to transport PDH, SDH / SONET, ETHERNET services over WWDM, CWDM and DWDM in optical metro edge and access networks.

The most popular configuration of CWDM mux/demux is 2CH, 4CH, 5CH, 8CH, 9CH, 16CH and 18CH CWDM MUX/DEMUX. 3 Single fiber or dual fiber connection for CWDM Mux/demux can also be found. These modules passively multiplex the optical signal outputs from 4 or higher electronics, send to them merely one optical fiber and then de-multiplex the signals into separate, distinct signals for input into technology along at the opposite end in the fiber optic link.

XFP Transceiver Module Concept

XFP transceiver belongs to 10G optical module, with LC connector, the maximum transmission is 80KM. XFP (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable) is a hot-swappable optical transceiver, independent of the communication protocol, usually the size is 850nm, 1310nm or 1550nm for the 10G bps SONET / SDH, Fibre Channel, gigabit Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet and other applications, including DWDM link. XFP contains similar SFF-8472 digital diagnostic modules, but extended to provide a robust management tools. XFI electrical interface specification is part of the XFP Multi Source Agreement specifications. XFP developed by the XFP Multi Source Agreement Group.

The optical transceiver is actually just a photoelectric conversion device, only responsible for the completion of the optical / electrical signal conversion, other functions, such as multiplexing / demultiplexing, 64B/66B codec by the chip implementation of the circuit board. XFP optical module can easily achieve high port density applications, XFP occupied area of only the Xenpak the 20% of the printed circuit board (PCB), the power consumption is only 1.5 to 2 W, can be used to achieve up to 16-port line card.

XFP interface with the circuit board using the 10G serial circuit interface (XFI-). Now provided by the manufacturer XSBI-to-XFI and XAUI-to-XFI chip, the XGMII-to-XFI chip manufacturers in the development.

Because XFP just an optical transceiver, so has nothing to do with the protocol can be generally applied to 10G Ethernet 10GFC and OC-192 SDH, universality of application conducive to equipment manufacturers increase purchases, so as to achieve the purpose of reducing costs. Addition, XFP provides a two-wire serial interface, can achieve the data diagnosis function, real-time monitoring of the optical module of various parameters, such as temperature, the laser bias current, transmitted light power, the received optical power, working voltage, etc..

XFI electrical interface specification is part of the specification of the XFP Multi Source Agreement by the XFP Multi Source Agreement Group development. In recent years, due to the speed of the fiber-optic network, the 10G XFP optical module applications become increasingly widespread.

Reference: XFP Transceiver Wiki

What’s Fiber Optic Transceiver Module

Fiber optic transceiver definition:

Fiber optic transceiver is an important device in the optical fiber communication systems, which can be performed between the photoelectric signal conversion, with the receiving and transmitting functions. The fiber optic module is typically composed by the optoelectronic devices, the functional circuit and the optical interface, the optoelectronic device includes a transmitter and receiver in two parts.

Classification of fiber optic modules:
In accordance with the rate min: 100Base (Fast Ethernet applications), 1000Base (Gigabit) 10GESDH applications 155M, 622M, 2.5G, 10G.

According to the package: 1 × 9, SFF, SFP, GBIC, XENPAK, XFP, 1 × 9 package – welding optical module, the general speed is not higher than gigabit, most SC interface. SFF package – welding small package optical modules, general speed is not higher than gigabit, LC interface. SF (SmallFormFactor) small package optical modules using advanced precision optics and integrated circuit technology, size is only half of the ordinary duplex SC (1X9)-type optical transceiver module, doubling the number of optical ports in the same space. GBIC Package – hot-swappable Gigabit Interface optical module, SC connector. GBIC is the abbreviation of Giga Bitrate Interface Converter. The interface devices that convert Gigabit electrical signals to optical signals. SFP package – hot-plug small package module, currently the highest data rate of up to 4G, the use of LC interface, SFP can be considered as an upgraded version of GBIC. XENPAK package for Gigabit Ethernet application, using SC interface, XFP package – 10G optical modules that can be used in Gigabit Ethernet, SONET and other systems, with LC interface.

Main parameters of the fiber optic transceiver:
TxLOP: Optical Average Power: average transmission optical power refers to the signal logic of 1 of the light power and the arithmetic mean value of 0 of the light power. P0 + P1 PAVG = 2 (dBm).
ER: Extinction Ratio: signal logic as 1 when the light power is 0 when the optical power of the size of the ratio of the calculation formula as: P1ER = 10log P0 (dB) of ER represents the extinction ratio, dB, P1 of and P0 respectively represent the logic 1 and 0 when the optical power.

Receiver Sensitivity: to measure minimum average optical power received by the receiving side is required to guarantee a certain bit error rate (1 × 10exp (-12)), in units of dBm. Error rate refers to the longer period of time, after The error symbol number and error detector output terminal received in the receiving side of the photoelectric conversion ratio of the number of symbols is given.

LOS Assert and LOS Dessert: The receiver output to an electrical signal, the the potential height reflects received by the receiver of the light signal intensity is sufficient, this potential with a preset potential in order to determine the light whether the signal is lost. potential comparison using a comparator with hysteresis effect to achieve, usually as by default the optical power of the electrical signal corresponding instructions, in units of dBm.

EMM: Eye Mask Margin: means eye amplitude in the optimum sampling point. “Open” the extent of the degree of opening of the eye diagram of the distortion-free should be 100 [[%]] The eye diagram template tolerance refers to the eye diagram template expansion, until the eye diagram of the sampling point to enter to the expansion of the region the template’s largest expansion percentage.

Ingellen Technology supplies a complete range of fiber optic network transceiver modules, well come to www.ingellen.com.

Article source from Fiber Optic Transceiver Module Definition, Classification and Parameter

Kinds Of CWDM Moudules

Coarse Wavelength Divison Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Module (CWDM Mux/Demux) is really a flexible, low-cost solution that effective at combining nine optical signals in to a fiber pair. The CWDM Mux/Demux is designed to interoperate with the WaveReady distinct transponder and optical regenerator solutions as well as CWDM transponders and small form-factor pluggables (SFPs) utilized in acquireable transmission equipment.

Common utilizations of CWDM technology include the multiplexers and de-multiplexers or optical amplifiers to improve the ability in the fiber optic cable. The CWDM Mux/Demux modules including CWDM MUX and CWDM Demux, are designed to multiplex multiple CWDM channels into 1 or 2 fibers. As well as highly reliable passive optics certified for environmentally hardened applications, the CWDM Mux/Demux lets operators use available fiber bandwidth in local loop and enterprise architectures.

In accordance with the wavelength or running channels in the each signal, CWDM MUX/DEMUX includes 4CH, 5CH, 8CH, 9CH, 16CH, 18CH CWDM Mux/Demux. These CWDM MUX/DEMUX can be found in 19″ Rack Mount or LGX module package.

4 channel CWDM MUX/DEMUX Module general features:
Low Insertion Loss;
Low PDL;
Compact Design;
Good channel-to-channel uniformity;
Wide Operating Wavelength;
Wide Operating Temperature;
From -40??C to 85??C;
High Reliability and Stability.

4 channel CWDM MUX/DeMUX Module Applications:
CWDM System;
PON Networks;
CATV Links.

CWDM supplies the most economic and efficient wavelength division multiplexing solutions for metro edge and access networks. Ingellen CWDM modules cover 2 channel, 4 channel, 5 channel, 8 channel, 9 channel, 16 channel and 18 channel CWDM Mux/Demux. Ingellen Technology offers CWDM OADMs (Optical Add/Drop Module) from 1 to 16 channels for CWDM networks, including 1 channel, 2 channel, 4 channel, 8 channel and 16 channel CWDM OADM.

The CWDM OADMs are passive devices that can multiplex/demultiplex or add/drop wavelengths from multiple fibers onto one optical fiber. Through the use of CWDM technology, individual channels might be optically added or dropped from a fiber pair while allowing pass-through visitors to continue unobstructed through the bus or ring. It offers low insertion loss, high channel isolation, wide pass band, low temperature sensitivity and epoxy free optical path.

1 channel CWDM OADM Key Features:
Add/drop ITU-T G.695- and G.694.2-compatible CWDM channels onto a fiber pair;
Designed for use in outside-plant fiber splice enclosures;
Upgradeable to 8 channels per fiber;
Provides low-loss pass-through for CWDM channels;
Thermally stable passive optics require no electrical energy.

1 channel CWDM OADM Applications:
Provides fiber conservation or reclamation for CWDM wireless backhaul, broadband, and other services;
Supports linear (bus) and ring add/drop architectures.

Things You Should Know About Filter WDM

Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is overtaking since the leading technology in point-to-point transmission links. One key method is a tunable optical filter. Important features of this type of filter include low insertion loss, narrow bandwidth, high sidelobe suppression, large dynamic range, fast tuning speed, a simple control mechanism, small size, and expense effectiveness. Filter WDM module will depend on Thin Film Filter (TFF) technology. The FWDM is extensively found in EDFA, Raman amplifiers, WDM networks and fiber optics instrumentation. The unit combines or separates light at different wavelengths in the wide wavelength range. Since FWDM series offer minimal insertion loss, low polarization dependence, high isolation and excellent environmental stability, perfect for very fast WDM network systems. It really is traditionally used in optical fiber systems:1310/1550nm, 1480/1550nm, 510/1550nm, 980/1550nm and 1310/1490/1550nm.

FWDM Main Features:
Wide Operating Wavelength Range;
Low Insertion Loss;
Ultra Flat Wide Passband;
High Channel Isolation;
High Stability and reliability;
Epoxy-free on Optical Path.
FWDM Applications:
Testing Instruments;
FTTH Tri-Play System.

WDM is a method of combining multiple signals on lasers at various infared (IR) wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic media. Each laser is modulated by an impartial pair of signals. Wavelength-sensitive filters, the IR analog of visible-light color filters, are employed on the receiving end.

WDM is comparable to frequency-division multiplexing (FDM). But rather than going on at radio frequencies (RF), WDM is done inside the IR element of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Each IR channel carries several RF signals combined by using FDM or time-division multiplexing (TDM). Each multiplexed IR channel is separated, or demultiplexed, in the original signals with the destination.

The usage of WDM can multiply the effective bandwidth of an fiber optic communications system with a large factor. However its cost should be compared to the choice of utilizing multiple fibers bundled in to a cable. A fiber optic repeater device referred to as erbium amplifier plans to make WDM a cost-effective long-term treatment for the bandwidth exhaustion problem.

Ingellen offers a wide selection of WDM/CWDM/DWDM devices, like CWDM Mux/Demux, CWDM OADM, DWDM Mux/Demux, DWDM OADM, Filter WDM and so on. Ingellen 1310/1490/1550 WDM devices based on thin-film filter technology are design to address the precise requirements from the FTTP market. Strong coating and passive device packaging capabilities feature these WDMs with excellent optical performance, good reliability and ultra-compact size. Ingellen’Fliter WDM utilizes thin film coating technology and proprietary design of non-flux metal bonding micro optics packaging.