The fiber optical splitter, also known as beam splitter, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals, especially applicable to a passive optical network to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment, achieving the branching of the optical signal.
Fiber optic splitters enable a signal on an optical fiber to be distributed among two or more fibers. Since splitters contain no electronics nor require power, they are an integral component and widely used in most fiber optic networks. For example, a 1X4 LC type equal splitting ratio fiber optic splitter can split the fiber optic light signal into four equal 25% parts and sent to the 4 different channels, LC is the connector type on the splitters. Fiber optic splitter key parameters include the optical loss, splitting ratio, isolation, PDL, etc.
Fiber Optic Splitter Features:
Single Mode, multimode, and PM fiber types;
Multiple port configurations, custom length and cable diameters;
Various splitting ratios, 50:50 to 1:99;
Tube type or Box type, PLC fiber optic splitters or Fused fiber optic splitters;
PC, UPC, and APC fibre optic connectors;
Available with FC, SC, ST, LC and MU connectors.
According to the optical splitter principle, it can be divided into FBT Splitter (Fused Biconic Tapered) and PLC Splitter (Planar Lightwave Circuit).
FBT Coupler, based on the traditional technology, making two (two or more) fibers removed the coating layer gather in a certain way, stretched to both sides under the heating zone at the same time. Form a double cone’s special waveguide structure, finally for getting a different splitting ratio, via controlling length of the fiber torsion angle and stretch. FBT splitters are widely accepted and used in passive networks, especially for instances where the split configuration is smaller (1×2, 1×4, etc). With the development of the technology, FBT splitters can be deployed in a cost- effective manner.
PLC Splitter is a micro-optical element using photolithographic techniques to form optical waveguide at medium or semiconductor substrate for realizing branch distribution function Technical Index.
With the latest technology, PLC splitters offer a better solution for applications when larger split configurations (1×16, 1×32, 1×64, etc) are required. To achieve this, waveguides are fabricated using lithography onto a silica glass substrate, which allows for routing specific percentages of light. As a result, PLC splitters offer very accurate and even splits with minimal loss in an efficient package.
FBT Splitter Compared With PLC Splitter
FBT Coupler are mature technology types, it is low cost and easy to make, but fused fiber optic splitters optical loss are sensitive to wavelength and this is a big disadvantage. PLC fiber optic splitters are small size and wide working wavelength, which are more reliable and suitable to use in passive optical network fiber optic splitting.
As the rapid growth of FTTx worldwide, the requirement of larger split configurations for these networks is increasing. Since the performance benefits and overall low cost of plc splitter, which serves mass subscribers, becomes the ideal solution for these types of applications currently.