Basic Knowledge of Fiber Optic Connector

Terminating the end of an optical fiber, the fiber optic connector is utilized to join optical fibers where a connect or disconnect capability is required. A fiber optic connector has three major components: the ferrule, the connector body and the coupling mechanism. Generally made from ceramic, metal or high quality plastic, the ferrule is a thin structure (often cylindrical) that holds the glass fiber. The connector body is a plastic or metal structure that holds the ferrule and attaches to the jacket and strengthens members of the fiber cable itself. And the coupling mechanism is a part of the connector body that holds the connector in place when it gets attached to another device.

Since the fiber cable transmits pulses of light instead of electrical signals, it is important to choose a good fiber optic connector that aligns microscopic glass fibers perfectly in order to allow for communication. Nowadays, there are many different types of fiber optic connectors in the market (as shown in the following figure). Different kinds of optical fiber cables may need different connectors. Seen from the types of optical fiber, the fiber optic connectors may be loosely classified into standard fiber optic connectors, small form factor fiber optic connectors and ribbon fiber connectors. These family types of fiber connectors sometimes may overlap with each other.

fiber optic connector

  • Standard Fiber Optic Connectors

Generally having a ferrule of 2.5 mm, standard fiber optic connectors are connectors commonly used in the fiber network. They can be both simplex and duplex and available in single mode and multi-mode fibers. ST, FC, SC, FDDI and ESCON are all standard fiber connectors. But they also differ from each other. ST connector is the most popular connector for multi-mode fiber optic LAN applications. FC connector is specifically designed for telecommunication applications and provides non-optical disconnect performance. SC connector is widely used in single mode applications for its excellent performance. FDDI connector, which is a duplex multi-mode connector, utilizes two 2.5mm ferrules and is designed to used in FDDI network. ESCON connectors are similar to FDDI connectors, but contain a retractable shroud instead of a fixed shroud.

  • Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Connectors

To meet the demand for devices that can fit into tight spaces and allow denser packing of connections, a number of small form factor fiber optic connectors have been developed since the 1990s. In this type of small form factor fiber optic connectors, some are miniaturized versions of older connectors, built around a 1.25mm ferrule rather than the 2.5mm ferrule. For example, the LC, MU, E2000 connectors. While the others are based on smaller versions of MT-type ferrule for multi-mode fiber connections, or other brand new designs. For example, the MT-RJ connector, which has a miniature two-fiber ferrule with two guide pins parallel to the fibers on the outside. Its overall size is about the same as a RJ45 connector.

  • Ribbon Fiber Connectors

MTP and MPO are compatible ribbon fiber connectors based on MT ferrules which allow quick and reliable connections for up to 12 fibers. Since the MTP product complies with the MPO standard, the MTP connector is an MPO connector. Along with the MTP patch cables (for example, MTP-MTP fiber trunk cable), MTP connectors can upgrade the 10G network to 40G/100G.

The fiber optic connector is an essential part in fiber optical network. As the popularity of fiber optical network, about 100 fiber optic connectors have been introduced to the market. As the main professional fiber optic products supplier in China, Fiberstore offers various kinds of fiber cable connectors, especially the commonly used FC, LC, SC, ST and MPO connectors.

Performance of fiber optic connector

The performance of optical fiber connectors, we should first consideration the optical properties, in addition to considering the interchangeability, repeatability, tensile strength, temperature and mating cycles.

(1) Optical properties: optical performance requirements for fiber optic connectors, mainly insertion loss and return loss of these two basic parameters.
The insertion loss (InsertionLoss) connection loss, refers to the effective optical power loss due to the import of the connector link. Insertion loss as small as possible, the general requirements should not be greater than 0.5dB.
Return Loss (ReturnLoss, ReflectionLoss) refers to the suppression of the connector to link optical power reflection, the typical value should not be less than 25dB. The practical application of the connector, the pin surface after a special polishing allows greater return loss is generally not less than 45dB.

(2) Interchangeability, repeatability
The fiber optic connector is a common passive devices, for the same type of fiber optic connectors, can generally be any combination of uses, and can be used repeatedly, which to import the additional loss is generally in the range of less than 0.2dB.

(3) Tensile strength to do fiber optic connectors, and general requirements for the tensile strength should be not less than 90N.

(4) Temperature
General requirements, fiber optic connectors must be temperature-40oC to 70oC the normal use.

(5) Mating cycles
At present, the fiber optic connectors Can be inserted and pull out over l000 times.

If you want to get more information about fiber optical connectors, please visit the Fiber optic products site.

Several Types of Fast Connectors From FiberStore

FiberStore has developed and dealt with many type of field assembly connectors for many years, the field assembly connectors can be assembled easily and quickly in the field without the additional fiber termination tools, and can be directly connected to drop cable and indoor cable, thus significantly reducing the required work time.

Field assembly connector is a revolutionary field installable optical fiber connector been widely used in passive optical construction field. This connector system doesn’t need any additional assembling tools such as as epoxy, adhesive and costly curing ovens, thus allowing the installer and make new connectors within a mere 3 minutes in the field. It also increasing the flexibility of optical wiring design of FTTH network. The Field assembly connectors have already been widely used in optical distribution cabinet, optical testing instrument and optical transmission network.

FiberStore provide high reliability FC, SC fast connectors in Fiber direct-in type and Preset fiber with matching fluid type, catering for 250um to 900um diameter single mode and multimode fiber types, including Multi-mode 62.5/125um and Multi-mode 50/125um.

Quick Assembly connector SC FC
Quick Assembly SC connector can provide a quick and easy termination of fibers in the field, Both single mode and multi mode connector options are available for 900 micron and 3mm drop cable application, allowing the installer to terminate and make connection in 3 minutes in the field. Special fiber optic crimp tool free design makes it easy in assembling.

Pre-polished Ferrule Field Assembly Connector
Pre-polished ferrule field assembly connector type is a part of optical fiber and has been polished and a pre-polished ferrule and a mechanical splice inside the connector body. The polished ferrule ensures a low insertion loss of the connector. Compare to the direct-in connector, it has a much more stable performance and a longer life time. Our pre-polished ferrule field assembly connectors are now available in FC, SC variants, the single-mode versions are available with PC or APC ferrules.

Without Ferrule Field Assembly Connector
Assembly of the SC, FC type quick connector requires only normal fiber preparation tools: a fiber stripping tool, wipes and a fiber cleaver. No electrical power supply is needed. This fast connectors feature a pre-stubbed factory-polished ferrule that couples to the fiber being terminated. Precision mechanical alignment insures low loss with a proprietary gel.

Cable Mechanical Splicer
Fiber mechanical splicer includes fast fiber optic mechanical splice for 250um bare fiber, MC-L925B optical fiber mechanical splicer, and FTTH drop cable mechanical splicer. Cable mechanical splicer take a global leading submicron processing technology, Use core component of high accuracy V groove provide high alignment, its unique structure had got IPR in 2007. As the first domestic mechanical splicer, the cable mechanical splicer sell well in domestic and abroad market and fill the domestic production of technology and product gaps, cable mechanical splicer have taken great role in FTTH.

Fusion Splice-on Connector
Fusion Splice-on Connector is actually an optical fiber fusion, however the welding point is in the inner end of connector, which makes it no necessary for extra protection equipment, such as fiber protection plate(optical fiber splice tray), optical fiber terminal box, optical fiber distribution frame, after it finished splice fusion. Compared to mechanical optical fast connector, this new practical connector can improve the span life of welding point of connector and reduce maintenance cost.

Besides Fast Connector, we also offer a variety of connector type , including ST, FC, SC, LC, MU, FDDI, E2000 (other connectors types such as OM4 50/125 ST-ST connectors) Fiber Connector etc for Fiber Patch Cord Assembly.

Using Fiber Terminators to Terminator Unused Fiber Connector Ports

With the rapid deployment of high speed fiber multiplexer, the possibility of having an un-terminated derived channel or branch increases. The single fiber connector mated to an unused adapter or coupling is the source of back-reflection. The fiber optic terminator is usually used to terminate the unused fiber connector ports in fiber optic systems. Such unused ports will create unwanted return loss and degrade the whole network performance. Fiber optic terminators are passive components that can absorb light coming from the unterminated connectors plugs and reduce signal degradation in digital and analog systems.

optical terminators
optical terminators from FiberStore

Fiber optic terminators are designed to reduce back-reflections, which is typically found on laser-activated, connectorized access points such as those found on splitters, DWDM’s or fiber distribution frames. are functional devices using Metal-Ion Doped Fibers. By using these fibers, optical terminators can convert the optical power into heat and the power is attenuated inside the devices. The structures of the plug type optical terminators are simple and the power-proof and performance stability is superior. The fiber optic terminators also maintain the cleanliness of unterminated plugs and protect them from possible physical damage.

The plug type optical terminators are used to terminate dark fiber port on the fiber optic component. Their ceramic ferrule is polished with an angled or non-angled end face to reduce unwanted reflections from open ports. These optical terminator also provide improved personal safety over termination methods.

Specifications

Return Loss: UPC >55 dB, APC >65 dB
Back Reflection: APC < -65dB, UPC < -55dB
Temperature Cycling: -20℃~-80℃
Polishing Grade: PC, UPC, APC
Connector Type: SC, FC, ST, LC,MU
Fiber type: SM(9/125㎛)
Optical performance 100% factory tested
Easy installation as plug type
Precision ceramic ferrule with endface
Geometry per IEC proposal
Environmentally stable
Adapt attenuation point to creating termination effect

Applications

Telecommunication Networks
Instrumentation
CATV Networks
Active Device Termination
EDFA

FiberStore provides all types of optical fiber terminators including SC, FC, ST, LC and MU type connector with high precision ceramic ferrule. They can be easily plugged into the systems to significantly reduce reflections from the fiber face, they can also be used with fiber adapters at the male plug end. Besides, FiberStore also provide the mechanical fiber optic termination tools such including fiber optic crimp tool to crimp or connect a connector to the end of a fiber optic cable.

Fiber Connector And Adapter Panel For Optical Links Together

Fiber optic connector is used for the connection of optical fibers or fiber optic cables. The Fiber Optic Connector provide a mechanical connection for the two fiber cables and align both cores precisely.

There have been over 100 connectors developed over the years, but a select few have stood the test of time and beat out their competition. Fiber Optic Connectors according to the different transmission media can be divided into common silicon-based optical fiber single-mode and multimode connectors, as well as other issues such as plastic and as the transmission medium of optical fiber connector; connector structure can be divided into: FC SC, ST, LC, D4, DIN, MU, the MT and so on in various forms, but SC and LC connectors are the most common types of connectors on the market. ST connector is the most popular connector for multimode networks. Different connectors are required for multimode and single-mode fibers.

In addition to connectors that tie two fiber-optic lines together, there are also Adaptor Panels (or fiber adapter plates) that can be used to connect multiple fiber-optic lineself. It enables you to make quick and easy fiber patch panel connections as they can snap into the enclosures easily. In a device such as this, connections can be made between any of the lines plugged into the panel. Though a single adapter panel can usually only hold a dozen or so cables, the panels can also be spliced together, allowing hundreds or thousands of connections to be made.

Specify optical fiber adapter plates for ST-, FC-, SC-, MT-RJ- or LC-type connections. Adapter plates are compatible with all wall and rack mount optical fiber enclosures and available in 6 simplex and duplex, 8 simplex and duplex and 6 quad configurations with fiber counts of up to 24 per adapter plate. They mount easily by means of plunger locks (“pushpins”). ST, FC, SC and LC connec-tor plates can be equipped with 62.5-μm and 50-μm adapters suitable for multimode applications or a sisingle modenly version is available with adapters outfitted with zirconia ceramic sleeves. Our SC and LC 10G multimode laser optimized adapter uses zirconia ceramic sleeves.

Series Features

Available in 6-, 8-, and 12-port fiber configurations,
Panel options available include ST, SC, LC and others,
High density applications can be reached through Dual and Quad LC applications,
Composite, Metal, or Ceramic sleeve options available,
Blank panels are available for use as dust covers,
Plates are available for mounting Bezel style jacks creating a mixed media environment.

In order to customize wall mount or rack mount fiber optic enclosures, FiberStore offers a wide selection of panels with various Optical Adapter including ST, SC, MTRJ and LC. All modular adapter panels are assembled with industry standard adapters. FiberStore fiber adapter panels/plates can come with various fiber adapters, such as LC/SC/ST/FC/MT-RJ, E-2000 fiber optic adapters, compatible with simplex or duplex and meet TIA/EIA-568-B.3 requirements. Our adapter plates include phosphor bronze or zirconia ceramic split sleeves to fit specific network requirements. LC and SC adapter housing colors follow the TIA/EIA-568-C.3 suggested color identification scheme. Multimedia modular panels allow customization of installation for applications requiring integration of fiber optic and copper cables. Blank fiber adapter panels reserve fiber adapter panel space for future use.